Now you are getting into an app that I used to use in Palm days titled Note Studio. It was developed by some folks in Australia. It had all the backlink features you've described. I've suggested to TB team that they look into working with the Dogmelon folks. There was an app named NoteLynx developed by an individual in London. Also had some rudimentary backlink capabilities.This is available in the App Store, but does not appear to have been updated since 2014.
Not to be too much of a stick in the mud, but https://www.zettelkasten.org/ and https://zettelkasten.de/ both translate Zettelkasten as "card index file" There is another set of apps from InfoRapid (German-based) KnowledgeBase Builder (last release was Aug 2019) and InfoCardFile. They have Android and Windows versions, but aren't cheap. I've not played around with either enough to say if they have the backlink feature implemented. On the Zettelkasten.de site in the blog section are diagram that resemble TB and the InfoRapid products. TB is more advanced than the InfoRapid products. All these share the same concepts of an elemental item of information (Thought appears quite often in the descriptions) with additional details as necessary, and then linkage to related information elements. I haven't nailed down a "starting date" yet, but from reading some books on card index file systems a year or so ago, I would suspect traceability back to 18th century is quite likely.
Dennis Ruth, CISSP Retired
Aerospace Scientist Computer Scientist Lieutenant Colonel (Ret) US Army Professor (Ret) National Defense University College of Information and Cyberspace